La diagnostica clinica della PCOS è estremamente eterogenea e variabile tale da complicare notevolmente l’iter diagnostico reso non meno difficoltoso da un altrettanto complicato corredo di dati di laboratorio. La sintomatologia è caratterizzata principalmente da disordini mestruali, iperandrogenismo ed alterazioni metaboliche. Le alterazioni ovariche funzionali e morfologiche, USG evidenziabili, saranno descritte in altri articoli.
Disordini mestruali: generalmente la presenza isolata di iperandrogenemia permette un’insorgenza normale del menarca seguito da cicli erratici (oligo-amenorrea), indolori e da anovulazione. Una modesta percentuale di pazienti con iperandrogenismo presenta cicli mestruali regolari o intermittenti e fertilità spontanea. L’associazione con l’obesità complica il quadro clinico, caratterizzandolo di cicli mestruali abbondanti, metrorragie disfunzionali, iperplasia endometriale a causa dell’aromatizzazione periferica dell’androstenedione in estrone. Occasionalmente si riscontra anche carcinoma occulto dell’endometrio. Inoltre nelle pazienti obese con iperandrogenismo c’e una maggiore resistenza all’induzione dell’ovulazione. Nelle pazienti PCOS magre si evidenzia una maggiore frequenza di iperstimolazione ovarica severa (OHSS) nei cicli PMA tale da richiedere un protocollo specifico per la iperstimolazione ovarica (COH).
Galattorrea: conseguenza di una iperprolattinemia quasi sempre modesta <100 ng/ml). La galattorrea è presente fino al 10 % delle pazienti con PCOS è probabilmente dovuta alla iperplasia delle cellule lattotrope ipofisarie ad opera dell’estrone a sua volta derivato dalla metabolizzazione periferica degli androgeni di origine ovarica e surrenalica. Spesso si associano abbassamento del tono dopaminergico e iperattivazione degli oppioidi endogeni.
Iperandrogenismo (HA): distinguiamo un un HA biologico: T>50 ng/ml e LH/FSH >2 ed un HA clinico che presenta virilizzazione, irsutismo, acne e obesità addominale.
La virilizzazione interessa circa il 10% delle pazienti con PCOS ed é caratterizzata da approfondimento del tono della voce, aumentata massa muscolare, atrofia delle ghiandole mammarie, alopecia androgena, aumento della libido, e clitoridomegalia. È espressione clinica dell’iperandrogenismo anche in assenza di alterazione dei dati di laboratorio.
L’obesità di tipo androgino: obesità con una distribuzione del grasso localizzato soprattutto a livello addominale e scapolare, identificabile da un rapporto circonferenza vita/circonferenza fianchi (WHR) >0.85. L’obesità influisce direttamente sul metabolismo glicidico innescando il circolo vizioso di insulino-resistenza/iperinsulinemia/diabete tipo II. E’ presente nel 50% delle donne con PCOS. Spesso si associa ad un aumento dei livelli sierici di trigliceridi, colesterolo LDL oltre che a iperinsulinemia come detto sopra.
Irsutismo: presenza di peli terminali, grossi, duri, lunghi, pigmentati in zone abitualmente glabre nelle donne o dotate di fine lanuggine viso, mento, torace, braccia, cosce. E’ correlato con alcuni parametri tipici della PCOS che costituisce l’80% circa delle cause di irsutismo nelle donne, La gravità dell’irsutismo è correlato con il grado di obesità, il tasso di testosterone sierico (T), il volume ovarico, l’ipoconcentrazione di FSH, l’alterato rapporto FSH/LH a favore di quest’ultimo. Il 60-65 % del testosterone circolante è legato alla TeGB (testosterone-binding globulin) denominata anche sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG); il 35-40% è legato all’albumina con un legame a bassa affinità, e solo 1-2% del testosterone è libero. Nelle pazienti PCOS spesso si assiste ad una diminuita sintesi della SHBG epatica, a causa dell’obesità e della iperinsulinemia, per cui aumenta la percentuale di T sierico non legato (T free) e quindi prontamente disponibile per la sua attività androgenica. Non sempre però il grado di irsutismo è correlato con la concentrazione degli androgeni plasmatici che spesso risulta normale; c’è quindi una maggiore sensibilità agli androgeni da parte dell’unità pilo-sebacea ed in particolare una iperattività della 5-α-reduttasi, enzima che trasforma il T in DHT (diidrotestosterone) principale responsabile dell’irsutismo. L’aumentato metabolismo del T a livello dell’unità pilo-sebacea produce una diminuzione dei livelli plasmatici dell’ormone circolante e, per un fenomeno di feed-back positivo, un aumento della quantità totale prodotta creando così un circolo vizioso iperandrogenismo-irsutismo-iperandrogenismo. Da ricordare che l’attività della 5-α-reduttasi è amplificata anche da iperprolattinemia e iperestrogenemia quasi sempre presenti nelle PCOS.
Alopecia androgenetica: la perdita dei capelli tipicamente si riscontra a livello della sommità del capo e non sulla nuca. Facendo scorrere la mano sopra il cuoio capelluto, come ad accarezzare i capelli, “manovra della carezza”, é facile rendersi conto a vista di quanti sono i capelli corti e sottili (miniaturizzati). Un eccesso di capelli miniaturizzati indica un defluvio in anagen tipico dell’alopecia androgenetica.
Acne: gli androgeni stimolano l’attività mitotica delle ghiandole pilo-sebacee e la sintesi intracellulare dei lipidi (tab. 3). Alla iperproduzione di sebo, in mancanza di adeguata pulizia, consegue abnorme cheratinizzazione, colonizzazione batterica e flogosi locale. Anche il progesterone ha un’azione favorente l’acne; infatti l’acne aumenta nella fase luteinica e all’inizio della gravidanza. Gli estrogeni invece esplicano un’attività anti-acne (63-65).
Un profilo particolare presenta la Pre-PCOS che oltretutto offre un’altra teoria etiologica: LBW-early-life sequence.
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