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In gravidanza il fabbisogno energetico e proteico aumenta del 14-20%, quello di vitamine e sali minerali dal 25 al 120%.
Durante l’allattamento il fabbisogno di energia e proteine aumentano del 20-30% mentre le richieste di micronutrienti (vitamine e sali minerali) del 30-100%. Una donna di età fertile tra i 20 e i 50 anni necessita giornalmente di 2200 kcal che diventano 2500 in gravidanza e 2700 in allattamento (aumento di peso, sintesi di nuove proteine, espansione del volume di sangue, aumento di peso dell’utero e della placenta ma soprattutto supporto energetico per la crescita del feto).
A questo punto possono intervenire in maniera risolutiva gli integratori alimentari che, con un giusto equilibrio tra introito calorico, proteico e micronutrizionale salvaguarda gli scopi di una corretta alimentazione durante gravidanza ed allattamento:
- Ridurre i rischi ostetrici;
- Raggiungere un regolare sviluppo del feto;
- Prevenire alcune patologie del nascituro;
- Ottenere una normale crescita del lattante;
- Raggiungere il benessere della mamma.
L’utilizzo degli integratori alimentari pone però il problema della loro validità scientifica e della loro utilità in mancanza di effettiva carenza di fattori nutrizionali. Sulla utilità degli integratori, in particolare di quelli vitaminici e vitaminico-minerali, vi sono comunque opinioni contrastanti e qualcuno li considera addirittura potenzialmente dannosi. Secondo la National Academy of Sciences americana non vi è prova che alte dosi di antiossidanti (vitamine A e C e ß-carotene) possano ridurre il rischio di malattie legate ai fenomeni di ossidazione e invecchiamento.
Una legislazione specifica che regolamenti il settore dell’integrazione alimentare non esiste, anche se la Circolare n. 8/96 del Ministero della Sanità (“Alimenti addizionati di vitamine e/o minerali e integratori”) ribadisce che, in attesa di sviluppi normativi che portino ad un inquadramento autonomo degli integratori alimentari e degli alimenti arricchiti ricadono nell’art. 7 del DL 111/92 che regolamenta gli alimenti arricchiti con integratori e vitamine.
RED BULL: bevanda che conriene taurina, glucuronolattone e caffeina, Vitamina B6 e B12, aromatizzanti, glucosio e lattosio. Una lattina conterrebbe una quantità di caffeina inferiore a quella di una tazzina di caffè (circa 125 mg). La taurina è un aminoacido che deriva dalla metionina e dalla cisteina e sembra divenire essenziale solo in presenza di uno sforzo fisico. Ne viene vantato l’effetto disintossicante e rigenerante dell’apparato muscolare. Il glucuronolattone è un antiossidante.
I prodotti di erboristeria in attesa della nuova legge, seguono quella degli alimenti e la normativa del 1932 sulle piante medicinali.
Hypericum perforatum (iperico): occore tener presente la possibile interazione con contraccettivi orali, ciclosporina, digossina, teofillina e warfarin.
La cipolla liofilizzata aumenterebbe la componente minerale ossea con effetto superiore a quello di calcitonina.
Tab. 24 bis – INTEGRATORI ALIMENTARI
|Vitex agnus castus (Cyclodynon)||
Integratori di fibre
Omega 3, EPA, DHA
Ctg C FDA
Precursori delle prostaglandine
Rischio di aborto o
Derivati degli aminoacidi
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